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UniFi - USP-RPS: Setup and Features


Readers will learn how to make the most of the UniFi SmartPower Redundant Power System (USP-RPS), exploring some of its features and use cases. It covers steps from installation to troubleshooting.

Table of Contents

  1. RPS Supported Models
  2. Introduction
  3. Installation
  4. Failover Mechanism
  5. Power Architectures
  6. RPS States
  7. Out of Power Budget
  8. Power Overload
  9. Priorities
  10. FAQ

RPS Supported Models

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The following table lists the supported RPS models and their power budget. 

Model 52V 12V
UDM-Pro 0 50W
USW-Pro-24 0 30W
USW-Pro-24-PoE 400W 30W 
USW-Pro-48-PoE 600W 50W 


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The UniFi SmartPower Redundant Power System (USP-RPS) is a proprietary redundant power system designed to protect up to six UniFi SmartPower supported devices from sudden power supply module failure. The USP-RPS continually monitors all attached devices. In the event of an internal AC/DC power supply failure, failover is automatic so the network continues to operate with no interruption in service. With a 950W (12V 350W, 54V 600W) DC power budget, the USP-RPS can protect a variety of high-power devices, including UniFi PoE switches.


  • Zero configuration. Auto-sensing attached devices and seamless failover.
  • Redundant Power System (RPS) status report.
    • Power utilization: such as power budget, backed up and delivering power.
    • Status and power requirement of the attached device.
    • Power, voltage, and current monitors
  • Setting priorities for RPS ports (FW version 5.8.0+).
  • Failure and exception events.
  • Managed by UniFi Network Controller version: 5.12.11 or later.


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1. Follow the USP-RPS's Quick Start Guide (QSG) to connect it to devices. While it is still in beta, find the info to access this QSG here.

2. After RPS auto-senses and allocates power to devices, the RPS's LED will be ON and the port icon turns green on the UniFi Network Controller. The device's Liquid Crystal Monitor's (LCM's) port property screen will also show a Connected status.

LCM Port Properties



UniFi Network Controller: USP-RPS Properties Panel (Port icons indicate status)


 3. Summary of power utilization will appear under Devices > Select the USP-RPS to open Properties Panel > Details > Power Utilization.


Failover Mechanism

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The USP-RPS automatically triggers a seamless failover in the event of an internal AC/DC power supply failure or AC circuit failure on the connected devices. Keep in mind that the failover mechanism is first come, first served. When detecting the failover, the USP-RPS sends the event that indicates which port is delivering power and shows the status information on the port property panel of the UniFi Network Controller and LCM.



Power Architectures

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Users can select different power architectures to protect the different levels of power failure.

  • Internal power supply failure
  • AC circuit failure
  • Interruption of utility power
Case 1 2 3
Power Architecture Using the same AC circuit with attached devices.   Using different AC circuits from attached devices and connected RPS with the emergency outlet.  Connected RPS with the UPS.
Protected Failure Internal power supply failure. Case 1 + AC circuit failure. Case 1, 2 + interruption of utility power.

The recommended power architectures are the ones mentioned for case 2 and 3.

Case 1: Protected Against Internal Power Supply Failure



Case 2: Case 1 + AC Circuit Failure



Case 3: Case 1 and 2 + Interruption of Utility Power


RPS States

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In this article, we have included possible RPS states. The USP-RPS will show these states on the UniFi Network Controller and the LCM of the device. When detecting anomaly, the USP-RPS will also send the alert to the controller and show the anomaly and solution. After the anomaly is fixed, the USP-RPS will go back to the Connected state automatically. 

RPS State

UniFi Network Controller Port Icon / Event





Controller-Icon-Disconnected.png  LCM-Disconnected.png

The USP cable is not connected or is not fully inserted.

 Connecting Controller-Icon-Disconnected.png LCM-Searching.png

The USP cable is connected, but the USP-RPS has not successfully negotiated with the attached device. The attached device may not boot up or is currently booting.


Controller-Icon-Connected.png  LCM-Connected.png

The USP-RPS is backing up the connected device. The USP-RPS has negotiated and the allocation of power is done.

Delivering Power


RPS is delivering power on port {port}.

Connected device is experiencing internal power supply failure/loss of AC power.


The connected switch/device is experiencing internal PSU failure or AC power loss, and the RPS is currently delivering power to it. Please check the device the RPS is delivering power to, to determine if there is an issue other than power outage. For example, make sure the AC power cord is plugged in all the way and hasn't loosened.

Out of Power Budget (Insufficient Power)


RPS is out of power budget. Available power is less than required power on the port {port}


The RPS port will only show this state when another port is delivering power to the device with power failure.

The USP-RPS's remaining power is not enough to back up the device on this port. Please recover the power failure of other devices. After fixing the power failure, the device attached to this port will go back to a Connected state automatically. See Out of Power Budget for more.

Port Power Overload


Port {port} is overloading or short circuiting


Check the device that is connected to this port. Make necessary fixes, and once you have confirmed there is no short circuit, please click the "reset" icon on the port properties panel of the UniFi Network Controller. See the Power Overload section below for more.

PSU Power Overload


Port {port} is denied power because of PSU {12V|54V} overloading

When it's a single port power overload

Check the interruption of utility power on the attached devices. If there is no power outage in the USP-RPS's power source, the USP-RPS will automatically try to recover the attached devices by the priorities and recorded topology. See the Power Overload section for more.

NOTE: If using firmware version prior to v5.8.0+, please click the "Reset" icon to recover the overloaded port on the port's properties panel in the UniFi Network Controller.


Controller-Icon-Disabled.png LCM-Disabled.png

Disabled ports won't provide power to connected device.

Out of Power Budget

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NOTE:The RPS port will show the "Out of Power Budget" state only when another port is delivering power to the device with power failure.

When the USP-RPS is delivering power on some devices, it will calculate the remaining power to prevent the PSU to go over the limit if the next device in line is experiencing power failure. When the remaining power is not enough to back up the device, the USP-RPS will move the device out of the backup list and set the port state to Out of Power Budget. This policy prevents RPS PSU overload and reserves more power to attempt to take at least one more device.

After fixing the devices experiencing the power failure, the device in the Out of Power Budget state will be backed up again, and the port state will be set back to Connected automatically.


  • RPS 54V power budget is 600W.
  • Port 1: USW-Pro-48-POE Gen2 is experiencing power failure and consuming 54V 500W from the RPS.
  • Port 2: USW-Pro-24-POE Gen2 PSU is good and requesting power (54V 200W) from RPS.

Steps of Example:

1. The RPS 54V calculates remaining power:

600W(PSU 54V capacity) - 500W(USW-Pro-48 consumption) = 100W

2. The USW-Pro-24-POE Gen2 required power is 200W, which is more than the 100W of remaining power. That means that if the USW-Pro-24-POE Gen2 is experiencing power failure, the PSU will be over the limit. Therefore, the RPS stops to back up the USW-Pro-24-POE Gen2 and sets its state to Out of Power Budget.

3. The power failure of the USW Pro-48-POE Gen2 is fixed. The remaining power goes back to 600W.

4. The remaining power of 600W is more than the USW-Pro-24-POE Gen2's required power of 200W. The USW-Pro-24-POE Gen2 is backed up by the RPS and the state goes back to Connected.


Calculating Remaining Power

remaining power = power capacity - (delivering power + required power of the first priority device)


  • A UDM-Pro is the first priority device and has a power requirement of 12V 60W.
  • A USW-Pro-48-POE Gen2 experiencing PSU failure is consuming 12V 45W and 54V 100W.

The remaining power for those would be: 12V 245W(350-45-60) and 54V 500W(600-100).

Removing the Device from Backup List

The USP-RPS will refer to the priorities to remove devices from the backup list. The device with lowest priority will be removed from the backup list first.

Power Overload

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Single Port Power Overload

To prevent short circuiting, the USP-RPS monitors power continuously. If the power limit threshold is exceeded, the USP-RPS will cut off power on the port to protect the device and the port's circuit.

PSU Power Overload

The primary purpose of the USP-RPS is to recover the device experiencing the internal power supply failure. For the resilience of power policy, the total backup power can be greater than the PSU capacity of the USP-RPS. In the event of an interruption of power for all devices, the pulse of power could be over the RPS PSU capacity.

If the USP-RPS with proper power architecture keeps RPS power up ( see cases 2 and 3 in the Power Architecture matrix above), the USP-RPS will automatically recover the devices one by one depending on the priorities and recorded topology. For the first priority device, with a critical priority level, the USP-RPS will optimize the power policy and provide best effort to keep the device (e.g. UDM-Pro) with zero downtime.


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After firmware v5.8.0+, the USP-RPS supports prioritizing the backed up devices. The priority is automatically determined by the model of the device and the port number. The USP-RPS will utilize power to keep the first priority device running. 

Priority Classification

1.  Model Priority

Priority Level Model
1 (Critical) UDM-Pro, Gateway series
2 (High) UNVR
3 (Normal) USW Pro Series  

2. Port Priority

The USP-RPS will prioritize by port number, with number one (1) being the highest priority and decreasing priority with each consecutive port number. Port priority is used if the connected devices have the same model priority.


  • Port 1: USW-Pro-48
  • Port 2: USW-Pro-24
  • Port 3: UDM-Pro

The USP-RPS uses the following steps to determine priority:

1. Compare using model priority. The UDM will have a higher priority than both USW-Pros who share a 3 (Normal) Priority.

2. Compare using port priority to determine priority between the USW-Pro-48 and USW-Pro-24. The USW-Pro-48 is on port 1, therefore will have higher priority than the USW-Pro-24, which is connected to port 2.

The resulting priority order of these devices would be: UDM Pro (Port 3) > USW Pro 48 (Port1) > USW Pro 24 (Port2).

The policies of the following states are determined by the priority order discussed in this section:

  • Out of Power Budget
  • Power Overload


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The USP cable is set up but the RPS stays in a Disconnected state. What can I do?

Verify that the USP cable is fully inserted in the RPS port. See the QSG section: Hardware Installation. While it is still in beta, find the info to access this QSG here.

What versions of device firmware and UniFi Network Controller software support RPS?

Device Device Firmware Version UniFi Network Controller Version
USP-RPS 4.0.74+ 5.12.11+
UDM-Pro 1.4.0+  NA
UniFi Protect NVR 1.2.1+ NA 

USW Pro Series

4.0.60+ NA 

What should I do if I get USP-RPS alerts and anomalies on the UniFi Network Controller?

Please refer to the instruction in the Solution provided by Controller. For more details, please refer to the RPS States table.
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